The objective is to ensure good visibility enabling both players and spectators to follow the progress of a game. The ball, regardless of its location and speed, should always be clearly visible. Creating good visibility requires sufficient contrast to be created between objects and their backgrounds, good illumination levels and even distribution of light across the playing surface (uniformity).
The main requirement is to ensure the safety of users by providing adequate illumination and control of reflection on the water surface. The control of surface reflection is particularly important to allow staff to deal with any swimmers in difficulty in the pool. With the complex nature of pool design and restrictions on positioning floodlights, it is important that lighting is considered at the earliest stages of the pool design.
Sports venues designed for multi-sports should ensure that their proposed lighting considers the needs of all the various sports to be played. Care must be taken to ensure that the lighting design produces uniformity of the required illumination, is adequately lit and that glare is minimized. The lighting should be positioned, so they do not hinder the players’ and officials’ vision.
The visibility of moving objects is dependent upon the angular size, speed and luminance of its background and the luminance of the surroundings. A high standard of lighting is required as the small, black and fast-moving puck has to be made to contrast against the ice rink so that the spectators and players can see it. This is especially true when there is a large distance between the ice and the spectators, such as in arenas or halls.
As ice acts as a good diffuse reflector there should be no strong patterns of light that could distract from the game. Good lighting uniformity is important for seeing the puck.